and extension: The two fundamental prerequisites of submission holds are to generate MOVEMENT and in your opponent. Stationary and tightly contracted (limbs pulled in tight) opponents are very difficult to submit. Given that relentlessly seeking submission is the basis of my approach to Jiu Jitsu, big part of what I is the ability generate and extension and then feed off the opportunities generated by this. This photo shows an interesting situation. Garry Tonon, a master of using his own movement to create movement and extension in an opponent, has used elevation from bottom as the means of creating and extension in his opponent, Kim Terra. Mr Terra is a highly skilled athlete and immediately recognizes the danger of extension and skillfully keeps his legs in a contracted state despite the powerful elevation – mindful of the leg danger from Mr Tonon. However, note always that if the movement is there, the opponent can never keep ALL his limbs contracted or he will fall over and lose position, so Mr Terra must keep his upper body extended even as he tries hard to defend his lower body. This choice makes perfect given the great proficiency that Mr Tonon has in leg locks – but it simply meant that Mr Tonon knew he had to switch to upper body attacks. That is exactly what he did – soon after this photo he successfully applied a stranglehold for the win. You must be mindful of creating movement and in your opponents as the precursor to your final goal of submission. You must be able to get your opponent moving and extended with equal facility from both top and bottom position. Only then will the submission holds you train so hard to perfect be available for you to use as your opponent offers them.